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Population Trends and Patterns

IB DP Geography
       
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Base Knowledge and Understanding

Base knowledge and understanding

 
Video Clip
Data Visualization
   
Definition natural increase
fertility rate
life expectancy
neonatal
infant mortality rate
child mortality rate
'the west'
'emerging economies'
News Article
Words to be defined
 
Base Level

Context

 

The aim of this lesson:

  • To start the process of being able to explain population trends and patterns in births (Crude Birth Rate), natural increase and mortality (Crude Death Rate, infant and child mortality rates), fertility and life expectancy in contrasting regions of the world.
 
Which country has the highest child mortality [probability of dying between birth and exact age 5 - expressed as deaths per 1,000 births] out of the following pairs?
Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
or
Turkey
Turkey
Poland
Poland
or
South Korea
South Korea
Malaysia
Malaysia
or
Russia
Russia
Pakistan
Pakistan
or
Vietnam
Vietnam
Thailand
Thailand
or
South Africa
South Africa
 
To find out the answers watch the first two and a half minutes of this TED talk:
 
So - do you know more than a chimpanzee or do you harbour misconceptions about the global population situation?
 
Geography Activities

Task One: Understanding what we need to know

You need to be able to explain population trends and patterns in births (crude birth rate), natural increase and mortality (crude death rate, infant and child mortality rates), fertility and life expectancy in contrasting regions of the world.
 
Define: explain [this is an IB DP Geography command term - check your handout!] | trends | patterns | regions
 
You will require a printed copy of this worksheet - so that you can define the indicators, plot the data hosted here on geographyalltheway.com and then describe and explain the trends and patterns.
Population Trends and Patterns Worksheet
 
Geography Activities

Synthesis

 
Geography Activities
Geography Activities

Task Two: Births [crude birth rate]

Plot the data on your worksheet, describe the trends, describe the patterns, try to explain the trends and then try and explain the patterns.

 

Crude Birth Rate - Births per 1000 population - Estimates
1950-1955
1960-1965
1970-1975
1980-1985
1990-1995
2000-2005
2005-2010
World
37
35
31
28
24
21
20
Europe
21
19
16
14
12
10
11
Africa
48
47
46
44
40
37
36
Asia
42
39
35
29
25
20
19
Northern America
25
22
16
15
15
14
14
Latin America + Caribbean
43
41
35
31
25
21
19
Oceania
27
26
24
20
20
18
18
Source: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2011). World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision, CD-ROM Edition.
 
 
Geography Activities
Geography Activities

Task Three: Deaths [crude death rate]

Plot the data on your worksheet, describe the trends, describe the patterns, try to explain the trends and then try and explain the patterns.
 
Crude Death Rate - Death per 1000 population - Estimates
1950-1955
1960-1965
1970-1975
1980-1985
1990-1995
2000-2005
2005-2010
World
19
16
12
10
9
9
8
Europe
11
10
10
11
11
12
11
Africa
26
22
19
16
15
13
12
Asia
22
19
12
9
8
8
7
Northern America
9
9
9
9
9
8
8
Latin America + Caribbean
16
12
10
8
7
6
6
Oceania
12
11
10
8
8
7
7
Source: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2011). World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision, CD-ROM Edition.
 
Hyperlink
  walesonline.co.uk - Bridgend village of Bryncethin has a mortality rate higher than Rwanda [5 January 2012]
 
Geography Activities
Geography Activities

Task Four: Infant Mortality Rates

Plot the data on your worksheet, describe the trends, describe the patterns, try to explain the trends and then try and explain the patterns.
 
Infant Mortality Rate (both sexes combined) - infant deaths per 1000 live births - Estimates
1950-1955
1960-1965
1970-1975
1980-1985
1990-1995
2000-2005
2005-2010
World
133
114
86
71
60
51
46
Europe
73
37
25
18
13
9
7
Africa
180
154
131
111
102
87
79
Asia
145
127
87
72
57
46
41
Northern America
31
26
18
11
9
7
7
Latin America + Caribbean
127
101
81
57
38
26
22
Oceania
60
49
41
33
28
25
22
Source: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2011). World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision, CD-ROM Edition.
 
Hyperlink
  The Hindu - Infant mortality rate shows slight decline [28 December 2011]
 
Geography Activities
Geography Activities

Task Five: Child Mortality Rates

Plot the data on your worksheet, describe the trends, describe the patterns, try to explain the trends and then try and explain the patterns.
 
Under-five Mortality Rate (both sexes combined) - deaths under age 5 per 1000 live births - Estimates
1980-1985
1990-1995
2000-2005
2005-2010
World
105
88
73
66
Europe
22
15
10
9
Africa
181
166
141
125
Asia
103
79
62
54
Northern America
14
10
8
8
Latin America + Caribbean
74
50
32
28
Oceania
44
38
33
28
Source: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2011). World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision, CD-ROM Edition.
 
Hyperlink
  The Economist - The best story in development Africa is experiencing some of the biggest falls in child mortality ever seen, anywhere [19 May 2012]
 
Geography Activities
Geography Activities

Task Six: Fertility Rates

Plot the data on your worksheet, describe the trends, describe the patterns, try to explain the trends and then try and explain the patterns.
 
Total fertility - children per woman - Estimates
1950-1955
1960-1965
1970-1975
1980-1985
1990-1995
2000-2005
2005-2010
World
4.95
4.91
4.45
3.59
3.04
2.62
2.52
Europe
2.65
2.56
2.17
1.89
1.57
1.43
1.53
Africa
6.60
6.71
6.67
6.39
5.62
4.94
4.64
Asia
5.82
5.59
5.00
3.69
2.97
2.41
2.28
Northern America
3.33
3.36
2.05
1.79
1.96
1.99
2.03
Latin America + Caribbean
5.86
5.96
5.02
3.93
3.02
2.53
2.30
Oceania
3.81
4.00
3.30
2.58
2.49
2.41
2.49
Source: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2011). World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision, CD-ROM Edition.
 
 
Geography Activities
Geography Activities

Task Seven: Life Expectancy

Plot the data on your worksheet, describe the trends, describe the patterns, try to explain the trends and then try and explain the patterns.
 
Life Expectancy at Birth (both sexes combined) - Estimates
1950-1955
1960-1965
1970-1975
1980-1985
1990-1995
2000-2005
2005-2010
World
47.66
51.19
58.50
62.06
64.38
66.42
67.88
Europe
65.58
69.63
70.79
71.73
72.58
73.79
75.36
Africa
38.17
42.39
46.56
50.13
51.18
52.90
55.16
Asia
42.94
46.36
56.99
61.59
64.95
67.60
68.98
Northern America
68.65
70.24
71.47
74.46
75.85
77.44
78.22
Latin America + Caribbean
51.28
56.77
60.86
65.16
68.88
72.11
73.41
Oceania
60.50
64.06
66.62
70.12
72.48
75.19
76.65
Source: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2011). World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision, CD-ROM Edition.
 
BBC News
  Japanese women fall behind Hong Kong in longevity [27 July 2012]
 
Geography Activities
Geography Activities

Task Eight: Natural Increase

Natural increase can be calculated by subtracting the death rate from the birth rate. Calculate it, plot the data on your worksheet, describe the trends, describe the patterns, try to explain the trends and then try and explain the patterns.
 
Crude Birth Rate - Births per 1000 population - Estimates
1950-1955
1960-1965
1970-1975
1980-1985
1990-1995
2000-2005
2005-2010
World
37
35
31
28
24
21
20
Europe
21
19
16
14
12
10
11
Africa
48
47
46
44
40
37
36
Asia
42
39
35
29
25
20
19
Northern America
25
22
16
15
15
14
14
Latin America + Caribbean
43
41
35
31
25
21
19
Oceania
27
26
24
20
20
18
18
 
Crude Death Rate - Death per 1000 population - Estimates
1950-1955
1960-1965
1970-1975
1980-1985
1990-1995
2000-2005
2005-2010
World
19
16
12
10
9
9
8
Europe
11
10
10
11
11
12
11
Africa
26
22
19
16
15
13
12
Asia
22
19
12
9
8
8
7
Northern America
9
9
9
9
9
8
8
Latin America + Caribbean
16
12
10
8
7
6
6
Oceania
12
11
10
8
8
7
7
Source: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2011). World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision, CD-ROM Edition.
 
Geography Activities
Geography Activities

Task Nine: 'IB Five' Data Collection

The IB Five
Produce a table to display the following data for the above 5 countries crude birth rate | a measurement of natural increase | crude death rate | infant mortality | child mortality | total fertility rate | life expectancy. Make sure you list your data source(s).
 
Geography Activities

Discussion Resources

 
Geography Review

Review

 

Time to attempt an exam style question. Answer one of the following questions:

  1. Explain the differences in births in two contrasting geographical locations. [5 marks]
  2. Explain the differences in natural increase in two contrasting geographical locations. [5 marks]
  3. Explain the differences in mortality in two contrasting geographical locations. [5 marks]
  4. Explain the differences in fertility in two contrasting geographical locations. [5 marks]
  5. Explain the differences in life expectancy in two contrasting geographical locations. [5 marks]

This is a 5 mark question and therefore writing the answer should take about 7 or 8 minutes in your IB examination and be about 10 to 12 lines of writing.

 

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