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Factors Affecting Adjustments and Responses

IB DP Geography
       
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Geography Starter

Starter

 
 
 
 
Brainstorm the factors that affect the choice of adjustments and responses to natural hazards.
 
Geography Activities

Activity

 

The IB DP Geography syllabus requires you to: Examine the factors that affected the choice of adjustment before, and responses to, actual hazard events or disasters.

We are going to do this by focusing on the Sichuan (2008), L'Aquila (2009) and Haitian (2010) earthquakes and the following four factors:

  • Recent significant extreme natural events > How many years since the area suffered a high magnitude earthquake? Does this impact upon the adjustments that a community has chosen to take?
  • Governance of the community and nation > Are there building codes? How strictly are these building codes enforced?
  • Resource base of the community and nation > How well organized are the emergency services? Does the country have a large armed services to call upon?
  • Level of economic development of the community and nation > How much money is available for adjustments and responses?

The following table gives quotes from and links to associated news stories.

 
Factor
Sichuan (2008)
L'Aquila (2009)
Haitian (2010)
Adjustments
Responses
Adjustments
Responses
Adjustments
Responses
Recent significant extreme natural events

1976: Songpan-Pingwu earthquake, resulted in 41 deaths.

Link

Reconstruction of public service facilities such as schools and hospitals our priority ... and turning them into extremely safe and solid structures.

Link

Much of the city's historic centre dates back to the early 18th Century when it was rebuilt following the last major quake in 1703.

Link

4,449 new, modern, earthquake-proof and ecologically responsible apartments have been constructed.

Link

1946
8.1-magnitude quake killed 1,790 people. Centred in the Dominican Republic.

Link

Ensure a strip of land 30m-40m wide is kept clear of buildings on both sides of the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault.

Link

Governance of the community and nation

China's quake code is adequate, if not the most up-to-date.

Link

UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon has praised China's "extraordinary leadership".

Link

No law in Italy that stipulates applying seismic building codes retroactively to existing buildings.

Link

Silvio Berlusconi refused foreign aid for the emergency

Link

There aren't any building codes as we would recognise them.

Link

There is no point rebuilding if people aren't accountable and they don't build to the right standards.

Link

Resource base of the community and nation

The PLA is the world's largest military force, with approximately 3 million members.

Link

Chengdu Military Area Command dispatched 50,000 troops and armed police.

Link

The Italian Red Cross rescue teams were on the scene of the disaster within an hour after the earthquake struck.

Link

The government spent $441 billion dollars on relief and reconstruction efforts.

Link

Haiti's army was dissolved in 1994.

Link

There is an acute shortage of drinking water in areas affected by the earthquake.

Link

Level of economic development of the community and nation

HDI: Medium Human Development, ranked 92nd with a value of 0.772

Link

Providing new houses for 3.9 million refugees, replacing schools and creating jobs for 1 million people

Link

HDI: Very High Human Development, ranked 18th with a value of 0.951

Link

It will cost more than eight billion euros to rebuild L’Aquila and the surrounding region?

Link

Haiti from the mid-1700s...has been a microcosm of virtually every development problem.

Link

Expensive measures are beyond the means of Haiti, one of the world's poorest nations

Link

 
China, Italy and Haiti Earthquake Magnitude and Amplitude
 
Geography Activities

Task One

The level of economic development is a key factor in the choice of adjustment and responses. Produce a brief development factfile that illustrates the economic development differences between China, Italy and Haiti.
 
Number of deaths, injuries and homeless
 
Geography Activities

Task Two

Describe and explain the patterns shown in the image above (Number of deaths, injuries and homeless) using your development factfile and the resources linked to from the table above. How have factors that affect the choice of adjustments and responses impacted upon the numbers of deaths, injuries and homeless?
 
Number of people recused.
 
Geography Activities

Task Three

Explain why there is such a difference in the number of people rescued, linking it to the factors that affect the choice of adjustments and responses. Don't forget to make links to the magnitude and amplitude of the quakes within your discussions.
 
 
Geography Activities

Task Four

How will the economic costs of a hazard event impact upon future choices of adjustments and responses?
 
Geography Review

Review

 

Exam style question:

For one or more hazards of your choice, explain the factors that affected the choice of either the adjustment before or the responses to the hazard event [10 Marks]

 

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