1.2.4 Forced migrations - detailed examples
- Geographic inquiry and concept(s)
- Processes of population change and their effect on people and places
- Geographic knowledge and understanding
- The causes and consequences of forced migration and internal displacement
- Case study or detailed examples
- Detailed examples of two or more forced movements, to include environmental and political push factors, and consequences for people and places
- Aims of this lesson
- To develop two detailed examples of forced migrations making sure to include environmental and political push factors, and consequences for people and places.
Base knowledge and understanding
UNHCR - The sea route to Europe: The Mediterranean passage in the age of refugees [1 July 2015]
- Economic migrant
A person who leaves their country of origin purely for economic reasons that are not in any way related to the refugee definition, in order to seek material improvements in their livelihood.
- Environmental push factors
Environmental (relating to the natural world and the impact of human activity on its condition) factors which initiate and influence the decision to migrate by impelling or stimulating emigration
- Forced migrant
A person subject to a migratory movement in which an element of coercion exists, including threats to life and livelihood, whether arising from natural or man-made causes (e.g. movements of refugees and internally displaced persons as well as people displaced by natural or environmental disasters, chemical or nuclear disasters, famine or development projects).
- Internally displaced person
A person or groups of persons who has been forced or obliged to flee or to leave their homes or places of habitual residence, in particular as a result of or in order to avoid the effects of armed conflict, situations of generalised violence, violations of human rights or natural or human-made disasters, and who have not crossed an internationally recognised State border.
- Political push factors
Political (relating to the government or public affairs of a country) factors which initiate and influence the decision to migrate by impelling or stimulating emigration
In the global context , either a person who, owing to a well-founded fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, political opinion or membership of a particular social group, is outside the country of nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail themselves of the protection of that country, or a stateless person, who, being outside of the country of former habitual residence for the same reasons as mentioned before, is unable or, owing to such fear, unwilling to return to it.
- Take some time to look at the three items below - The Uprooted, Seeking refuge for my children and Why Boat Refugees Don't Fly!
Seeking refuge for my children - Javier Bauluz, the first Spanish photojournalist to win a Pulitzer Prize, walked with refugees as they traveled from Greece to Germany.
- You need to create two detailed examples. One where the majority of the push factors are 'political' and the other where the majority of the push factors are 'environmental'. Your detailed examples must include:
- the push factors
- the consequences for people
- the consequences for places
- [Use a single slide for each detailed example using an app such as Google Slides or PowerPoint.]
2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine
BBC News - Ukraine conflict: Simple visual guide to the Russian invasion [26 February 2022]
BBC News - How many Ukrainians have fled their homes and where have they gone? [22 April 2022]
BBC News - Poland feels the strain of Ukraine's refugees [13 March 2022]
The Syrian Refugee Crisis
BBC News - Why is there a war in Syria? [15 March 2018]
Al Jazeera - Syria's civil war explained from the beginning [14 April 2018]
Lake Chad region, Africa
European Council on Foreign Relations - Climate-driven migration in Africa [20 December 2017]
Kivalina, Alaska, USA
The Washington Post - The remote Alaskan village that needs to be relocated due to climate change [24 February 2015]
podcasts.geographyalltheway.com curates 200+ podcasts to support IB DP Geography students and educators. The following podcast supports and extends the content from this lesson →
BBC World Service - The Compass - Climate Wars: The Sahel [27 minutes]
The Guardian - Running dry: the water crisis driving migration to the US [26 minutes]
Forced migration have impacts upon people and places. The power of the push factors will affect the number of people that move.
State and explain one environmental push factor causing an instance of forced migration. [1 + 2]
State and explain one political push factor causing an instance of forced migration. [1 + 2]