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Prevention relative to treatment

IB DP Geography
       
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Base Knowledge and Understanding

Base knowledge and understanding

 

Environmental Health Atlas

Video Clip
Data Visualization
   
Definition coronary heart disease (CHD)
cardiovascular disease (CVD)
deprivation
risk factor
'causes of the causes'
obesity
News Article
Words to be defined
 
Base Level

Context

 

The aim of this lesson:

  • To identify global patterns of calorie intake as one measure of food availability.
  • To be able to discuss the geographic factors that determine the relative emphasis placed by policy-makers in the United Kingdom, on prevention as opposed to the treatment of heart disease.

Geographic factors can be summaries by SPEED - Social, Political, Economic, Environmental and Demographic.

 
SPEED Factors
 
Geography Activities
Geography Activities

Task 1: Identify global patterns of calorie intake

This shows the global distribution of calorific intake by nation. This is shown as kcal which represents 1000 ‘small calories’. If you look at any food wrapper you will see the energy value of the food shown in these 2 forms.

According to the National Health Service of the United Kingdom the average man should consume around 2500 kcal per day to maintain his weight, and the average woman should consume around 2000 kcal. These figures are guidelines, and would need to be adapted according to the age, and physical activity of the person, but they give a sense for what would be a reasonable consumption of food. Of course the distribution of access to calories is not equal, and even within countries that would be considered to be economically developed not everyone is always well fed. How does this variation in calories impact on people?

 
Mouse-over the map and explore different areas to get a feel for the variations, and then identify three countries that are amongst the highest in terms of their calorific intake and three that are amongst the lowest.
 
Geography Activities
Geography Activities

Task 2: what is CVD and CHD?

Coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease are common in the UK, and account for more than a third of all deaths annually.

 
 
  • What risk factors for heart disease are identified ?
  • Would you consider yourself to be at risk from heart disease ?
  • What part does food play in increasing the risk of heart disease ?
 

Produce a 100 word summary for the man pictured here, who features in the video:

 
Geography Activities

Synthesis

 
Geography Activities
Geography Activities

Task 3: the economic costs of CVD and CHD in the United Kingdom

  • The average cost of a hospital admission for a CVD event is estimated to be £4614
  • Overall CVD is estimated to cost the UK economy £30.7 billion a year
  • Of the total cost of CVD to the UK, around 47% is due to direct health care costs, 27% to productivity losses, and 26% to the informal care of people with CVD
  • Overall CHD is estimated to cost the UK economy nearly £9.0 billion a year
  • Of the total cost of CHD to the UK, around 36% is due to direct health care costs, 43% to productivity losses, and 21% to the informal care of people with CHD
 
Geography Activities
Geography Activities

Task 4: the economic costs of CVD prevention in the United Kingdom

Estimated savings at national level are difficult to predict as they depend on changing the behavior of individuals, for which a standard set of assumptions would not be practical.

 
In a high deprivation area of the United Kingdom it is estimated that CVD costs £75.1 million per 200000 people in the population aged over 40 years, per 5 years. It is estimated that implementing a recommended prevention programme for those 200000 over 40 years olds would cost £0.236 million and would save an estimated £0.420 million from avoided CVD events.
 
Geography Activities
Geography Activities

Task 5: addressing the risk factors - prevention

What steps are taken by policy-makers to prevent CVD?
 
Research

Smoking

BBC News
Graphic anti-smoking ad launched [28 December 2012]
 
Research

High blood pressure

Hyperlink
NursingTimes.net - Charity maps blood pressure levels across the UK [31 May 2013]
 
Research

High cholesterol

The Guardian
Screen all babies for high cholesterol, doctors say [14 September 2007]
 
Research

Physical inactivity and being overweight

Hyperlink
Change 4 Life
 
Geography Activities
Geography Activities

Task 6: relative emphasis placed by policy-makers - geographically targeting the help

Looking at the map below - if you were a policy-maker where would you target prevention efforts?
 
Deaths from Heart Attack and Chronic Heart Disease
 
Geography Activities
Geography Activities

Task 7: relative emphasis placed by policy-makers - targeting the help

What other factors should influence policy-makers in targeting help?
 
Research

Social factors

Hyperlink
Healthy living, healthy heart - To help African Caribbean communities look after their heart and reduce their risk of CVD
 
Research

Economic factors

Hyperlink
Manchester Evening News - Tameside named as heart disease capital of the UK [19 April 2013]
 
Research

Environmental factors

BBC News
Air pollution 'harmful for those with failing hearts' [9 July 2013]
 
Research

Political factors

Hyperlink
Heart UK - Cardiovascular disease inequalities must be addressed by Government say Heart UK [25 March 2013]
 
Geography Review

Review

 
"For all communities, the prevention of disease is at least as important as its treatment." Discuss this statement, referring to CVD and CHD in the United Kingdom. [10]
 
Essay Graphic Organiser
 
The markbands can be found here.
 

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