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Prevention Relative to Treatment - Coronary Heart Disease in the United Kingdom

IB DP Geography
       
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The aims of this lesson:

  • To be able to discuss the geographic factors that determine the relative emphasis placed by policy-makers in the United Kingdom, on prevention as opposed to the treatment of heart disease.

Geographic factors can be summaries by SPEED - Social, Political, Economic, Environmental and Demographic.

 
SPEED Factors
Image: SPEED Factors, a Creative Commons Attribution (2.0) image from geographyalltheway_photos's photostream 
 
Geography Starter

Starter

 

There is a great deal of variation in the adoption of Primary Health Care (PHC) measures. It is likely that when you were younger you were vaccinated against a range of diseases. These will have been the ones which were thought to be the most prevalent, or the ones that you would most likely encounter.

If prevention measures are not used, illness can become established in an area. It is often more expensive to treat an illness or condition that has developed, rather than prevent it's establishment in the first place.

 
Geography Activities
Geography Activities

Task 1: what is CVD and CHD?

Coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease are common in the UK, and account for more than a third of all deaths annually.

 
 
  • What risk factors for heart disease are identified ?
  • Would you consider yourself to be at risk from heart disease ?
  • What part does food play in increasing the risk of heart disease ?
 

Produce a 100 word summary for the man pictured here, who features in the video:

 
Geography Activities

Activity

 
Geography Activities
Geography Activities

Task 2: the economic costs of CVD and CHD in the United Kingdom

  • The average cost of a hospital admission for a CVD event is estimated to be £4614
  • Overall CVD is estimated to cost the UK economy £30.7 billion a year
  • Of the total cost of CVD to the UK, around 47% is due to direct health care costs, 27% to productivity losses, and 26% to the informal care of people with CVD
  • Overall CHD is estimated to cost the UK economy nearly £9.0 billion a year
  • Of the total cost of CHD to the UK, around 36% is due to direct health care costs, 43% to productivity losses, and 21% to the informal care of people with CHD
 
Geography Activities
Geography Activities

Task 3: the economic costs of CVD prevention in the United Kingdom

Estimated savings at national level are difficult to predict as they depend on changing the behavior of individuals, for which a standard set of assumptions would not be practical.

 
In a high deprivation area of the United Kingdom it is estimated that CVD costs £75.1 million per 200000 people in the population aged over 40 years, per 5 years. It is estimated that implementing a recommended prevention programme for those 200000 over 40 years olds would cost £0.236 million and would save an estimated £0.420 million from avoided CVD events.
 
Geography Activities
Geography Activities

Task 3: addressing the risk factors - prevention

What steps are taken by policy-makers to prevent CVD?
 
Research

Smoking

BBC News
Graphic anti-smoking ad launched [28 December 2012]
 
Research

High blood pressure

Hyperlink
NursingTimes.net - Charity maps blood pressure levels across the UK [31 May 2013]
 
Research

High cholesterol

The Guardian
Screen all babies for high cholesterol, doctors say [14 September 2007]
 
Research

Physical inactivity and being overweight

Hyperlink
Change 4 Life
 
Geography Activities
Geography Activities

Task 4: relative emphasis placed by policy-makers - geographically targeting the help

Looking at the map below - if you were a policy-maker where would you target prevention efforts?
 
Deaths from Heart Attack and Chronic Heart Disease
 
Geography Activities
Geography Activities

Task 5: relative emphasis placed by policy-makers - targeting the help

What other factors should influence policy-makers in targeting help?
 
Research

Social factors

Hyperlink
Healthy living, healthy heart - To help African Caribbean communities look after their heart and reduce their risk of CVD
 
Research

Economic factors

BBC News
Why is heart disease 'more likely if poor'? [19 April 2013]
Hyperlink
Manchester Evening News - Tameside named as heart disease capital of the UK [19 April 2013]
 
Research

Environmental factors

BBC News
Air pollution 'harmful for those with failing hearts' [9 July 2013]
 
Research

Political factors

Hyperlink
Heart UK - Cardiovascular disease inequalities must be addressed by Government say Heart UK [25 March 2013]
 
Geography Review

Review

 
 
Alan Parkinson   These Geography of Food and Health resources were written by Alan Parkinson and edited by Richard Allaway. Alan is a an independent geography consultant, author and trainer, fellow of the Royal Geographical Society, Chartered Geographer and founder member of the Geography Collective.
 

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