Ecosystems are a community of plants, animals, and micro-organisms that are linked by energy and nutrient flows and that interact with each other and with the physical environment.

Ecosystems have living (biotic) and non-living (abiotic) elements.

Water, air, solar energy, rocks and soils would be examples of abiotic elements.

Plants, animals, insects, micro-organisms and people are biotic elements.


Food Webs, Energy Flows and Nutrient Cycles

IGCSE Geography: Climate and Ecosystems: Foodwebs and Energy Flows from Richard Allaway

Download the 'Food Web Construction Exercise PowerPoint Slide' and add arrows to build up the flood web. Ensure the arrows show the direction of energy flow. All the information you need is below:

  • Baleen whales eat Krill.
  • Leopard seals eat Penguins, Fish, birds and Krill.
  • Other seals eat Krill and Carnivorous zoo plankton.
  • Penguins eat Krill, Fish and squid.
  • Other birds eat Krill, fish and Carnivorous zoo plankton.
  • Elephant seals eat squid and fish.
  • Squid eat fish, Krill and Herbivorous zoo plankton.
  • Fish eat Krill, Carnivorous zoo plankton, Herbivorous zoo plankton and squid.
  • Carnivorous zoo plankton eat Krill and Herbivorous zoo plankton.
  • Herbivorous zoo plankton eat phytoplankton.
  • Krill eat phytoplankton and Herbivorous zoo plankton.
  • Sperm Whale eat squid.
  • Small Toothed Whales eat Baleen Whales, seals, leopard seals, squid and penguins.