Online Geography Resources


Wave Processes

Coastal Landforms

Sand Dunes

Coral Reefs

Coastal Management


Coasts / Marine Processes

GCSE / IGCSE Geography (14-16 yrs) GCSE / IGCSE Geography (14-16 yrs) Key Terms Key Terms     Links to AS / A2 / IB  Geography Links to AS / A2 / IB Geography
Marine Processes
IGCSE Geography candidates should be able to
- Demonstrate an understanding of wave processes in eroding a coastline and re-sorting and depositing materials removed through erosion. Candidates should understand the types of waves (constructive and destructive) and the components of waves, swash and backwash. The erosional processes of wave action should include an understanding of corrasion, hydraulic action, corrosion and attrition. Transport of material along a coastline should be appreciated; onshore and offshore movements together with an understanding of movement along a coastline (longshore drift). The action of wind in shaping coastal sand dunes should also be understood.
- Describe and explain the landforms associated with these processes. A study should be made of the following coastal landforms: Cliffs, wave-cut platforms, caves, arches, stacks, bay and headland coastlines, beaches, spits and bars, coastal sand dunes and marsh.
- Describe the conditions required for the development of coral reefs.
- Describe fringing and barrier reefs and atolls.
The inter-relationship of physical and human geography
IGCSE Geography candidates should be able to
- Demonstrate an understanding that the natural environment presents hazards and offers opportunities for human activities. Reference should be made to the hazards posed by volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tropical storms, flooding and drought. Use could be made of the study of contemporary examples to illustrate. This information would provide candidates with valuable case study information. Such examples could form resource material given in examination questions when candidates might be expected to illustrate inter-relationships between the natural environment and human activities from the data presented. Reference to the opportunities and problems posed for people could be incorporated when studies are made of the natural environment, for example the advantages and difficulties offered by river flood plains and deltas. The impact of human activities on the two ecosystems named in 2.2 should be considered. - Online Geography Resources | GCSE / IGCSE Geography on facebook
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