The physical characteristics of extreme environments
- Explain the advance and retreat of glaciers and the main features resulting from the processes of erosion and deposition by glaciers.
- Explain permafrost, patterned ground, solifluction, thermokarst, pingos.
Hot, arid environments (hot deserts and semi-arid areas)
- Explain weathering and the processes involved in wind- and water-formed features.
- Explain the occurrence of flash floods.